With the rise of the novel in the 18th century, the concept of the narrator (as opposed to "author") made the question of narrator a prominent one for literary theory.It has been proposed that perspective and interpretive knowledge are the essential characteristics, while focalization and structure are lateral characteristics of the narrator.He and many other semioticians prefer the view that all texts, whether spoken or written, are the same, except that some authors encode their texts with distinctive literary qualities that distinguish them from other forms of discourse.
In the study of fiction, it is usual to divide novels and shorter stories into first-person narratives and third-person narratives.
As an adjective, "narrative" means "characterized by or relating to storytelling": thus narrative technique is the method of telling stories, and narrative poetry is the class of poems (including ballads, epics, and verse romances) that tell stories, as distinct from dramatic and lyric poetry.
On one large vessel, the artist depicts birds with fish in their beaks, resting in a tree, while a fox-like animal stands below.
This scene bears resemblance to the story of The Fox and the Crow in the Panchatantra.
Some theorists of narratology have attempted to isolate the quality or set of properties that distinguishes narrative from non-narrative writings: this is called narrativity.
In India, archaeological evidences of presence of stories, are found at Indus valley civilization site Lothal.On a miniature jar, the story of the thirsty crow and deer is depicted – of how the deer could not drink from the narrow-mouth of the jar, while the crow succeeded by dropping stones in the jar.The features of the animals are clear and graceful.It leads to a structural analysis of narrative and an increasingly influential body of modern work that raises important theoretical questions: In literary theoretic approach, narrative is being narrowly defined as fiction-writing mode in which the narrator is communicating directly to the reader.Until the late 19th century, literary criticism as an academic exercise dealt solely with poetry (including epic poems like the Iliad and Paradise Lost, and poetic drama like Shakespeare).This is part of a general communication system using both verbal and non-verbal elements, and creating a discourse with different modalities and forms.In On Realism in Art Roman Jakobson argues that literature exists as a separate entity.Stories are also a ubiquitous component of human communication, used as parables and examples to illustrate points.Storytelling was probably one of the earliest forms of entertainment.This is first seen in Russian Formalism through Victor Shklovsky's analysis of the relationship between composition and style, and in the work of Vladimir Propp, who analysed the plots used in traditional folk-tales and identified 31 distinct functional components.This trend (or these trends) continued in the work of the Prague School and of French scholars such as Claude Lévi-Strauss and Roland Barthes.