Research Paper On Psychological Disorders

Research Paper On Psychological Disorders-75
Psychological disorders have etiologies that are largely multi-factorial, involving complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Early environmental exposures influence schizophrenia expression even in the presence of strong genetic predisposition. E., Cannon, M., Mc Clay, J., Murray, R., Harrington, H., Taylor, A., Arseneault, L., Williams, B., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R., Craig, I. A number of risk factors have been implicated in the development of psychological disorders, but their relative contributions to mental illness are specific to different disorders and individual patients, and a precise cause can rarely be identified on an individual basis.(1) Below is a sampling of some of the variables identified as risk factors in the development of psychological disorders. Although the topic is primarily focused on psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience, we will consider submissions from other disciplines if relevant to the topic area.

Mental imagery is increasingly shown in the literature to play a key role in various psychological disorders.

The exploration of mental imagery represents a new and important area within clinical psychology, but arguably one still in its infancy.

Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene-environment interaction.

W., Harrington, H., Mc Clay, J., Mill, J., Martin, J., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R. Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene.

Twin studies report the concordance rate of schizophrenia (the probability that one twin will have the disorder if the other twin does) to be 45 to 60 % for monozygotic (identical) twins, compared to only 10 to 15 % for dizygotic (fraternal) twins.

In a comprehensive review of schizophrenia literature, Husted et al. Early environmental exposures influence schizophrenia expression even in the presence of strong genetic predisposition. However, because of the retrospective nature of the study, researchers could not determine which of the many variables associated with famine (e.g. nutrient deficiencies, generalized stress, infection, ingestion of toxic substances, or a combination of those factors) contributed to the increased risk of psychosis.(6) Determining the relative contribution of environmental factors to the onset of schizophrenia is further complicated by the interactions between genetic and environmental variables. (2005) found that different versions of the catecholamine-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene, which is involved in the regulation of dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex, affected the degree to which adolescent cannabis use was a risk factor for schizophrenia.(7) The genetic contribution to depressive disorders is estimated to be approximately 30 to 40 %.(8) While a variety of environmental characteristics have been identified as risk factors for depression, early life stressors, such as childhood physical or sexual abuse, parental neglect, and loss of a parent, have been shown to significantly increase the probability of developing depression later in life.(9) The effects of early life stressors are influenced by a variety of genes, and the 5-HTTLPR gene, involved in serotonin transporter functioning, has received significant attention. (2003) found that the short version of the gene, which is associated with a reduction in serotonin transporter function, increased the risk of developing depressive symptoms and suicidality following exposure to stressful life events and maltreatment during childhood.(10) However, results from studies of the 5-HTTLPR gene have not been consistent, and Heim et al. While mental imagery has featured prominently in recent ...While mental imagery has featured prominently in recent theoretical accounts of disorders as diverse as post-traumatic stress disorder, phobia, body dysmorphic disorder, mood disorders, and psychosis, there remains an insufficiently strong theoretical and methodological foundation to enable effective comparison of imagery across different disorders and across different domains.Advances in clinical science over the past several decades have led to major improvements in how mental disorder is diagnosed and treated—millions of individuals now have access to robust, evidence-based interventions.But as science reveals more about the origins and development of mental disorder, it also raises more questions.Diagnosing mental-health issues may seem straightforward: Patients discuss their symptoms and a clinician matches those symptoms to a disorder and devises an appropriate treatment.In reality, this view belies the complexity inherent in understanding, classifying, and diagnosing psychiatric phenomena.For further information, including about cookie settings, please read our Cookie Policy .By continuing to use this site, you consent to the use of cookies.


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