Research Paper On Cloning

Research Paper On Cloning-71
But cloning can also be done artificially in the laboratory via embryo twinning or splitting: an early embryo is split so that both parts, when transferred to a uterus, can develop into individual organisms genetically identical to each other.

But cloning can also be done artificially in the laboratory via embryo twinning or splitting: an early embryo is split so that both parts, when transferred to a uterus, can develop into individual organisms genetically identical to each other.

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Dolly the sheep, the first mammal cloned from a somatic (body) cell, came into the world innocent as a lamb.

However, soon after the announcement of her birth in February 1997 (Wilmut et al., 1997) she caused panic and controversy.

This entry describes the most important areas of disagreement regarding the ethics of cloning.

I will focus on human cloning (as opposed to animal cloning), since human cloning has been the focus of the cloning debate.

However, since reproductive cloning of mammals has become routine in several countries, there is reason to believe that at some point in the future, humans will be cloned too.

Moreover, even if cloning will not be possible in the near future, cloning for research and therapeutic purposes is likely to be.They transferred the resulting embryo into the uterus of a surrogate ewe and approximately five months later Dolly was born.Dolly had a white face: she was genetically identical to the Finn Dorset ewe from which the somatic cell had been obtained.Dolly was the first mammal to be brought into the world using SCNT.Wilmut and his team at the Roslin Institute in Scotland replaced the nucleus from an oocyte taken from a Blackface ewe with the nucleus of a cell from the mammary gland of a six-year old Finn Dorset sheep (these sheep have a white face).Mitochondria are organelles that serve as power sources to the cell. In Dolly’s case, her DNA was the same as the donor animal; other of her genetic materials came from the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the enucleated oocyte.For the clone and the donor animal to be exact genetic copies, the oocyte too would have to come from the donor animal (or from the same maternal line – mitochondria are passed on by oocytes).Dolly, however, was not 100% genetically identical to the donor animal.Genetic material comes from two sources: the nucleus and the mitochondria of a cell.Dolly’s birth was a real breakthrough, for it proved that something that had been considered biologically impossible could indeed be done.Before Dolly, scientists thought that cell differentiation was irreversible: they believed that, once a cell has differentiated into a specialized body cell, such as a skin or liver cell, the process cannot be reversed.

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