People who use eye contact are viewed as confident, credible and having nothing to hide.” h Facial expression Facial expression is a very important part of non-verbal communication.We cannot communicate a message effectively without using facial expression.Non-verbal cues include all the signs and signals-audio, visual, tactile and chemical used by human beings to express themselves apart form manual sing language and speech.” Givens believes that humans use non-verbal communication naturally and that it is firmly grounded in evolutionary development, he further states that “non-verbal communication is culture-free: it applies worldwide.
Givens believes that non-verbal communication signals persons true feelings and these may be different to the actual spoken word.
Givens states “non-verbal communication is the process of sending and receiving wordless messages K.
Thus, Hall believes that we must respect each other personal space in order for effective communication to take place. “physical- facial expressions,tone of voice, sense of tuch,sense of smell and body motions 2.
Aesthetic-this type of communication includes creative expressions; playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpture. Signs- this type of communication includes the use of signal flags, slautes,horns and sirens 4.
Co-operation improves as we recognise and respond appropriately to non-verbal cues” Bandura also wrote about non-verbal communication, in 19977 he states”indivdiuals have learnt to behave in particular ways non-verbally usually responding differently in different situations” Dr.
David Givens is also an influential writer on non-verbal communication and he believes that there are about 125 recognisable signals of non-verbal communication.If we talk to someone on the telephone or over the Internet, we cannot judge effectively the true intentions and sincerity of what a person is communicating.We can ask questions by simply raising an eyelid, show doubt saddness, happiness, fear and many other expressions just by the way we move our eyes, mouth, cheeks and head. uncrossed arms = willingness to listen” We must pay attention to our posture to convey a positive message when communicating and to ensure that we convey the correct attitude and message the receiver. Hand movements are probably the most recognised gestures, and can convey very different messages.A person who has had a stroke may not be able to communicate effectively without the use of facial expressions, a person who cannot speak can speak volumes by the use of facial expression and we must pay attention to this whilst treating such patients, similarly we must pay attention to our own facial expressions in order that we convey the correct message h Posture Posture is another very important part of non-verbal communication we can convey many unspoken messages simply by the way we are standing or sitting. Clenching a fist is the most understood hand gesture but we also wave our hand to say goodbye or to show anger, we must pay attention whilst communicating to ensure we do not display negative hand gestures.Dr Raam has identified six different postural positions, which convey very different messages, these are; 1. erect posture = high spirits,energy and confidence 3. Gestures also include shrugging our shoulders, a shrug of the shoulders can display disinterest in the conversation or a flippant attitude but it can also display and I give up signal.Symbolic-this type of communication involves making the use of religious, status or ego-building symbols.” Porter believed that non-verbal communication was vital to effective communication he believed that in order to function effectively we must understand non-verbal cues and interpret them correctly.Tortoriello, Blott and De Wine also wrote about non-verbal communication and they jointly defined non-verbal communication as ” The exchange of messages primarily through non-linguistic means, including: kinesics (body language), facial expression and eye contact, tactile communication, space and territory, environment, paralanguage and the use of silence and time.” Lamb also believed that non-verbal communication was vital in order to achieve effective communication.Most people look into the eyes of another to see it they are being sincere in what they are saying, avoidance of eye contact can make a person feel uneasy and may lead to them thinking the person they are communicating with is being insincere.Similarly too much eye contact can make a person feel intimidated and the person may feel that the messenger is being intrusive.Non-Verbal Communication Essay, Research Paper Spoken and non-verbal communication Non verbal communication is often called body language because it involves the way we use our bodies and gestures not our spoken word to communicate.Non-verbal communication is 55% more powerful than the spoken word, it is believed by many that 60-80% of our message is communicated through body language and only 7-10% is communicated through the spoken words.