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Quechua writing and grammar are the work of the Spaniard, and Quechua literature belonged entirely to bilingual men of letters like El Luna-rejo until the appearance of Inocencio Mamani, the young author of Tucuipac Manashcan.
I do not exempt myself from discharging it nor do I apologize for its partiality.
Piero Gobetti, with whom I feel great spiritual affinity, writes in one of his essays: “True realism is devoted to the forces that produce results and it has no use for results intellectually admired a priori.
Riva Agüero could not openly admit to the political bias of his exegesis: first, because it is only long after the time of his writing that we have learned to dispense with many obvious and useless deceptions; second, because, as a member of the aristocratic encomendero class, he was obliged to profess the principles and institutions of another class, the liberal bourgeoisie.
Even though it felt itself to be monarchist, Hispanist, and traditionalist, that aristocracy had to reconcile its reactionary sentiment with the practice of a republican and capitalist policy and with respect for a democratic and bourgeois constitution.
It is at the same time a piece of literary historiography and a political apologia.
The class system of the colonial encomendero underlies his opinions, which invariably are expressed in terms of Hispanism, colonialism, and social privilege.Riva Agüero departs from his political and social preoccupations only to the degree that he adopts the standards of a professor or a scholar, and then the departure is merely apparent, because never does his spirit move more securely in the academic and conservative sphere.Nor does Riva Agüero bother to conceal his political prejudices when his literary evaluations are mixed with anti-historical observations about the presumed error of the founders of independence in their choice of a republic over a monarchy or when he violently attacks the tendency to form parties around principles in opposition to the traditional oligarchical parties, on the grounds that such opposition would incite sectarian conflict and arouse social enmities.I do not claim to be a temperate and impartial judge; I declare myself a passionate and belligerent adversary.Arbitrations and compromises take place in history, provided that the opponents engage in long, drawn-out disputes.Language is the raw material that unites literature.The Spanish, Italian, and French literatures began with the first ballads and tales, artistic works of enduring value written in those languages.It is a literature written, thought, and felt in Spanish, although in many instances and to varying degrees the language is subject to indigenous influence in intonation and even in syntax and pronunciation.Indian civilization did not have a written language and therefore it did not acquire a literature; or rather, literature remained in the realm of ballads, legends, and choreography.Riva Agüero judged literature with the criterion of a civilista.His essay on “the nature of literature in independent Peru” is unmistakably colored, not only by political beliefs, but also by the sentiments of a class system.