*We could equally use jw in place of s if we wanted to get an idea of the phase effects of a circuit and this will be done later.Boldly going forth with the above supposition, a Wien bridge oscillator can now be analyzed.*

The performance of modern components is such that in most cases, the above assumptions are perfectly acceptable and very little performance degradation occurs as we move away from the ideal.

Long before the op amp was invented, Kirchoff's law stated that the current flowing into any node of an electrical circuit is equal to the current flowing out of it.

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Visit Stack Exchange Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for electronics and electrical engineering professionals, students, and enthusiasts. Sign up to join this community I am attempting to solve the above circuit for V0. Thus far I've used KCL to say that $$i_3 = i_2 i_1$$ and by ideal op amp function, $$ V_1 = 1V $$ $$V_3 = 2V $$ From there I say that $$ \frac i_2 = \frac $$ But that doesn't really get me any closer to finding V0, what am I missing?

Then the power of math processing programs can be unleashed on the equations to find when, for example, instability occurs, or the susceptibility of the circuit to component variations, if this is desired.

A similar version of this article appeared in the December 2002 issue of New Electronics magazine.

This can be represented by: Similarly, current flowing away from that node can be represented by Combining Equation 1 into Equation 2 gives Now, life is made easier if we use conductances instead of resistances (it keeps the fractions to a minimum).

Thus, where so therefore the voltage V is given by The nodal equations for the inverting node are just as straight forward To find a transfer function, we know Combining Equation 3 and Equation 5 into Equation 4 gives so In other words, the output depends on the differential voltage across the inputs and the gain-setting resistors, as we would expect.

(There are conditions on Kirchoff's law that are not relevant here.) An op amp circuit can be broken down into a series of nodes, each of which has a nodal equation.

The equations can be combined to form the transfer function. The current flowing toward the input pin is equal to the current flowing away from the pin (since no current flows into the pin due to its infinite input impedance).

## Comments How To Solve Op Amp Problems

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