(Papers reporting something other than experiments, such as a new method or technology, typically have different sections in their body, but they include the same Introduction and Conclusion sections as described above.) Although the above structure reflects the progression of most research projects, effective papers typically break the chronology in at least three ways to present their content in the order in which the audience will most likely want to read it.
First and foremost, they summarize the motivation for, and the outcome of, the work in an abstract, located before the Introduction.
An explicit preview would be phrased much like the object of the document: "This section first . Do not make readers guess: Make sure the paragraph's first sentence gives them a clear idea of what the entire paragraph is about.
If you feel you cannot or need not do more than list items, consider using a table or perhaps a schematic diagram rather than a paragraph of text.
For the task, the effects of a range of inhibitors of connexin channels, such as the connexin mimetic peptides Gap26 and Gap27 and anti-peptide antibodies, on calcium signaling in cardiac cells and He La cells expressing connexins. In any case, the paragraphs in these sections should begin with a topic sentence to prepare readers for their contents, allow selective reading, and — ideally — get a message across.
Even the most logical structure is of little use if readers do not see and understand it as they progress through a paper. Most Materials and Methods sections are boring to read, yet they need not be.
To reach their goal, papers must aim to inform, not impress.
They must be highly readable — that is, clear, accurate, and concise.
To this end, they must emphasize both the motivation for the work and the outcome of it, and they must include just enough evidence to establish the validity of this outcome.
Papers that report experimental work are often structured chronologically in five sections: first, Introduction; then Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion (together, these three sections make up the paper's body); and finally, Conclusion.