Humans have probably attempted to depict motion as far back as the Paleolithic period.Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics.
Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images.
In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film.
Television and video are popular electronic animation media that originally were analog and now operate digitally.
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed.
Animation is also prevalent in information technology interfaces.
The physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can also be considered animation.
His Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) was also an early example of character development in drawn animation.
The most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, who, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade.
Charles-Émile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888.
From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris.