Officers should use their discretion to enforce public order laws much as police do during traffic stops, he said.
So an officer might issue a warning to someone drinking in public, or talk to kids skateboarding in a park about finding another place to play. Kelling told FRONTLINE that over the years, as he began to hear about chiefs around the country adopting Broken Windows as a broad policy, he thought two words: “Oh s–t.” “You’re just asking for a whole lot of trouble,” Kelling said.
It can also lead to tragedy: In New York in 2014, Eric Garner died from a police chokehold after officers approached him for selling loose cigarettes on a street corner.
Today, Newark and other cities have been compelled to re-think their approach to policing.
There is little data available comparing the effectiveness of the policing strategies born from these theories, but we can discuss their differences in concept and practice. The name “broken windows” is based on a metaphor that the Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy describes below: “the model focuses on the importance of disorder (e.g., broken windows) in generating and sustaining more serious crime.
The Broken Windows theory was introduced in 1982 in an article written by social scientists James Q. Disorder is not directly linked to serious crime; instead, disorder leads to increased fear and withdrawal from residents, which then allows more serious crime to move in because of decreased levels of informal social control.” The Broken Windows theory was initially and most notably put into practice by the NYPD, but has also been a fundamental theory for building policing strategies for law enforcement agencies across the country.
Newark’s blue summonses were rooted in the 1980s-era theory known as “Broken Windows,” which argues that maintaining order by policing low-level offenses can prevent more serious crimes.
But in cities where Broken Windows has taken root, there’s little evidence that it’s worked as intended.
Kelling argues that in order to determine how to police a community, residents should identify their top concerns, and police should — assuming those issues are legitimate — patrol accordingly.
But disorder doesn’t look the same to everyone, Harcourt said.